Archive for the ‘LTE’ Category

Analysis: 4G Backhaul, accept the challenge

February 22, 2010 10 comments

4GBackhaul Analysis

1. What is happening with the backhaul?

Numerous statistics and forecasts at Internet show that the use of data services on the mobile phone is growing up very fast. Several factors have helped this growing:

  1. The increase of smartphones sales in the last 3 years.
  2. The better performance of 3G-3’5G in comparison with GPRS in terms of download & upload speed.
  3. The user trends toward web 2.0 and social networks: Facebook, Twitter, FlickR and others have generated the demand of “Internet everywhere” in the users.
Increment of users with data plans

Increment of users with data plans

The increase in the number of data traffic users is good news for the telecom carriers, more users mean more money, but this increase also brings them three problems:

  1. More users mean more data traffic to handle, so carriers need more bandwidth. They have to upgrade their networks: in the access and in the backhaul.
  2. New services usually require more bandwidth. Web surfing is not sufficient. Telecom operators are facing a big challenge: Users want to watch videos on demand (YouTube, Vimeo…), talk with VoIP services (Skype), listen to real time music (Spootify), etc.
  3. The ARPU (Average Revenue Per User) seems to be decreasing in the present scenario.

These three facts (and some other ones) start to be a problem to theperformance and to the value of the 3G nets, which are not prepared for such a huge demand of data.

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Analysis of LTE & WiMax

February 11, 2010 13 comments


This article tries to describe some comparative points of LTE and WiMax to show their advantages and disadvantages.

1. Time advantage

WiMax is in the market while Long Term Evolution is still in the labs…So, in this point, WiMax has a clear time advantage over LTE: WiMax is present nowadays in numerous countries around the world.

There are already a lot of deployments, and WiMax is growing step by step in different markets, not only in urban zones,but also in rural and/or emerging markets. On the other hand, LTE is still in the labs, and forecasts say that until 2011-2012 (end of 2010 maybe) it will not be in the real market.

WiMax time advantage over LTE

Availability of WiMax, HSPA and LTE

This fact can be an advantage for WiMax, because when LTE has arrived to the telecom market, WiMax will have already a solid market using it’s hardware. However, other technologies, like HSPA+, could decrease that advantage. HSPA+ could compete with WiMax meanwhile LTE arrives.

Spectrum efficiency of HSPA, WiMax and LTE

Spectrum efficiency of HSPA, WiMax and LTE in BPS/Hz

As it can be seen in the figure above, HSPA R7 can compete with WiMax R3 TDD in terms of BPS/Hz either in the download link or upload link.

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Categories: 3G, 4G, Analysis, LTE, WiMax Tags: , , , , ,

Basics of LTE (Long Term Evolution)

February 11, 2010 Comments off


LTE is the new standard of the 3GPP for the next generation of mobile telecommunications; It is the evolution of GSM/WCDMA. The key features of LTE are:

  • OFDM in Download link, DFTS-OFDM (“Single-Carrier FDMA”) in Uplink.
  • IP flat architecture with the SAE architecture.
  • Low latency (10ms for User-plane, 100ms for Control-plane).
  • MIMO antennas.
  • Building on current investments in the GSM/UMTS.
  • Flexible carrier bandwidths: 1.4MHz -20MHz.  (1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 MHz).
  • FDD – TDD.
  • LTE can do handover and roaming to existing networks.
  • DL-peak: max 326,4 Mbit/s with 4×4 antennas, 172,8 Mbit/s with 2×2 antennas.
  • UL-peak: Max 86,4 Mbit/s.
  • Up to 200 users at the same time in a 5 MHz cell.
  • Average optimum cell distance 5km. Cell of 30km still works good, with a little degradation. Cell of 100km is still acceptable.
  • Increased spectrum flexibility, It supports spectrum slices of 1.5 MHz (up to 20 MHz).
Categories: 3G, 4G, LTE Tags: , ,